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2015年1月9日 星期五

A Journey in Time .1st stop Tehran: 5 Stonewares and Monuments of the Museum of Archaelogical Iran (時間之旅 :第一站 . 德黑蘭之五: 伊朗考古博物館之石器及石碑)

A second section of the museum is devoted to artifacts in stone whilst a third is devoted to those involving the use of bronze. There were much less stone wares, statues or other artifacts than those related to pottery but there were columns and reliefs.


This is a chlorite vase found in Shahdad in Kerman Province and is dated 3rd millenium BCE. It's carved with what appears a woman in a dress on top and beneath her is what appears the head of  a man. What does that mean, that their society was matriarchical? According to internet sources, the Elamites were indeed a matriarchical society. If so, was it made by the proto-Elamites who were then living in the region forming part of Iran today around that time? .


A stone bottle with lid found at the same place and from the same period. Is this lidded stone bottle for spices for the use of Persian women?If so, does its shape have anything to do with this fact?



Another stone bottle with the same wavy lines but without any human figure found at the same place and from the same period. Was that for flowers? Or was it a drinking vessel?


Another stone bottle from the same place and from the same period but the bottle looks much more complex: two curves above and straight lines, rectangles and triangles below. It looks quite deep. If the base of the bottle is hollowed out, then what does it say about the  kind of technology required?.


This is a very clever design of a stone plate found in Shahdad in Kerman Province dating from the 3rd millenium BCE. There are two small rectangles. Could they be for spices or sauces or for primitive cosmetics?


A stone basin/bowl from the same location and from the same period. It's a really clever idea to make use of the different natural colors of the stone for decorative effect.


A twin stone vessel from Susa in Khurzestan dated 3rd millenium BCE. There are two hole: one at the side on top and another at the side close to the rim connecting the two vessels. Is that for passing a piece of string through to facilitate it being carried around? What was it used for? Two drinking cup or two cups for herbs or spices like e.g. salt?


An animal shaped stone vessel also from Susa and the same period.  There appears to be an opening at the tip of the animal at the right. What could it have been used for?Was it chiseled after a the form of a pig or that of a mouse?



A primitive looking stone figurine from the same location and period. Is this a ceremonial animal?It certainly does not appear to have any practical function !


A human shaped stone figurine from Hesar in the Semnan Province dated late 2nd millenium BCE. Was it supposed to depict a woman? Is this a lucky charm or used for religious purposes or merely for decoration?


A carved stone vessel with three leg from Hasanlu in W Azarbaijan from the 1st millenium BCE. Is that a stool? What is used for? For holding another heavy vessel above or for
grinding food?


A stone vessel with inscriptions from Hasanlu in West Azarbaijan from the same period


This is a carved stone relief found at the palaces at Pepsepolis in the Fars Province . It shows the emperor seated on a throne with a mace on his right hand. On his left, he seems to be carrying a vase. In front of him, there are two stands above which are two piles or coils of incense. Are they incense burners? Behind the king are a number of courtiers. The first figure behind the king is an official holding what looks like a torch or oil lamp whilst behind him are what looks like some soldiers. Some experts say that the King might be Darius the Great and the figure behind him his son Xerxes probably because both of them are taller than the other figures. In front of the King is probably the "chilliach" the commander of the Archaemenid army and behind him is a man carrying a bucket. What is inside the bucket? Behind him are the soldiers. The relief has been called "Audience Scene of Darius I (550-486 BCE) / Xerxes "(519-465 BCE)

This is supposed to be the statue of Darius the Great but his head and shoulder are missing. He is dressed in the Persian style robe. The pleats of the robe on the right are inscribed with cuneiform writing in the three official languages of the Archaemenid Empire viz. Old Persian (DSab), Elamite and Babylonian  ( see the pedestal below the King's feet)) and those on the left in Egyptian heiroglyphs. It sets out the king's title and says that the statue was made in Egypt upon Darius's order to be set up at a temple at Heliopolis. On the front and the back of the base is a representation of Hapi (the Egyptian god of the Nile) and on two long sides, the peoples of the empire are represented by 24 cartousche fortresses, each with the name in heiroglyphs and a representation of them above. The grey granite indicates that the stone came from Wadi Hammamat in eastern Egypt where it was made and then taken to Persia possibly in the reign of the Xerxes. There are traces of brownish reddish paint on the folds of the dress. 


The inscription are at the left and right of the pedestal stone. They appear to be symmetrical but in reverse order on both sides. The Persians seem obsessed with symmetry, which is repeated in the two female figures in the middle which look identical yet in reverse order.


This mural portrays a warrior of the Archaemenid Empre with spear, a bow and  a back sack of arrows.


This is the column capital of one of the palaces at Persepolis in Fars Province with what appears to be tied rings at the bottom and chrysanthemums and leaves above.

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This is a stone seated dog from Persepolis, from the Archaemenid period 5th century BCE: very realistic


This is a fragment of the stone staircase from Persepolis in Fars, 5th century BCE


The inscription of Xerxes at Persepolis in Persian language


The translation about the inscription whereby Xerxes described how he brought peace to his kingdom which included Media, Elam, Arachosia, Armenia, Drangiana, Parthia, Aria, Bactria, Sogdiana, Chorasmia, Babylonia, Assyria, Sattagudia, Lydia, Egypt, the Ionias, the Markran people, Arabia, Gandar, the Indus province, Cappadocia, Dahae, the Amyrgian Scythians, the Scythians with pointed caps, Thracia, the Akaufaka people, Libyans, Carians, Nubians and replaced the worship of Daivas by the worship of Azura Mazda, the god of the Zoroastrians


One of the columns taken from Persepolis showing the heads of two bulls supported by a column adorned with flower shaped decorations


 A close up of the two bulls' heads


 Part of the statue of Penelope in white marble from Persepolis, 5th century BCE


A pair of animals' ears from Persepolis


A stone column base with old Persian cuneiform inscription with the name of Artaxerxes found at Tepe Hegamatane in Hamadan, 5th century BCE


A stone statue of Zeus of the Seleucid dynasty (312 BCE to 63 CE) found at Nahavand at Hamedan Province.


An inscription of the Seleucid Dynasty at Nahavand of Hamedan Province 5th century BCE

 

A Parthian (250 BCE to 224 CE) stone relief found at Bard-e Neshandesh in Khuristan  


 Fragment of tone of the Parthian Dynasty ( 250 BCE to 224 CE) decorated with 5 man found at Bard-e Neshandeh in Khuzestan 


 A Sassanian (226 to 651 CE) stucco relief found at Chai Takran (Eshgh Abad) Rey 



The Sassanian stucco bust of a man found at Hajiabad in Fars Province , 4th century CE



The Sassanian bust of Shapour II (310-379 CE ) found at Hajiabad, Fars, 4th century CE


A Sassanian stucco lion head found at Hajiabad in Fars Province


Another Archaemenid column found at Persepolis

(To be cont'd)