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2015年1月10日 星期六

A Journey in Time .1st stop Tehran: 6 Bronzeware of the Museum of Archaelogical Iran (時間之旅 :第一站 . 德黑蘭之六: 伊朗考古博物館之銅器)

Apart from the pottery and stone ware section, the museum also has a section devoted to bronze ware.



Here are some bronze spear heads found at Luristan dated late 2nd and early 1st millenium BCE. Those at the bottom seem more suited for defense than attack.


This one appears quite elaborate and seems to form the head of a ceremonial spear, more decorative than functional.

 

A double function weapon head




The bronze heads hoes, picks on the left and wooden rods fitted with bronze decorative features whilst the one on top looks completely decorative, all found at Luristan and dated
1st millenium BCE.


More bronze spearheads of the same period from the same location



Some bronze arrow heads and daggers found at Luristan all from 1st millenium BCE. Some of them has incription like Ahura Mazda, the creator god worshipped by Zoroastrians


A bronze quiver found at Luristan dated 900 to 800 BCE



Various bronze daggers from Luristan of the 1st millenium BCE



A bronze human figure with inscription in Babylonian cuneiform script from the 1st millenium BCE which experts have translated as follows: "Iltirgazi, the god of the city who was kidnapped and placed in Burnaku. Marduk-Sarani, son of Sulmanu Asaridu, ruler of the land Semanis returned him and put him in his place"


Bronze standard fitted to the top of various long poles or rods and decorative finials found at Luristan from 1st millenium BCE  The simplified animal shapes show remarkable similarity to the design of many similar antique decorative jade ornaments in China around the same period.The simplified animal shapes show remarkable similarity to the design of many similar antique decorative jade ornaments in China around the same period. ie the period of Spring  & Autumn and Warring Nations 春 秋戰國 ie. (746-221 BCE), Qin Dynasty(秦朝 )(221-206 BCE  ). and Western Han (西漢)( 206 BCE -24 CE). We understand that from quite early on, there was already a land Silk Road from Xian (西安) of ancient China to Rome and that's is why China is still called "China" (from the name of the Qin Dynasty written as "Chin" or "Sina" in the West). One of the main stops on the road from Xian to  Rome is Tehran. The Silk Road is a series of trade and cultural transmission routes connected China to the Mediterranean and central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent by linking traders, merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time. Extending some 4,000 miles (6,437 kilometres), the Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in Chinese silk carried out along its length, beginning from Qin Dynasty and the Central Asian sections of the trade routes were expanded around 114 BCE by the Han Dynasty, largely through the missions and explorations of Chinese imperial envoy, Zhang Qian.(張騫) The Chinese took great interest in the safety of their trade products and extended the Great Wall of China to ensure the protection of the trade route.Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the civilizations of China, the Indian subcontinent, Persia, Europe, and Arabia, opening long-distance, political and economic interactions between the civilizations. Though silk was certainly the major trade item from China, many other goods were traded, including spices, tea and jade and religions, syncretic philosophies, and various technologies, as well as diseases, also traveled along the Silk Road. In addition to economic trade, the Silk Road served as a means of carrying out cultural trade among the civilizations along its network.The main traders during antiquity were the Chinese, Persians, Greeks, Syrians, Romans, Armenians, Indians, and Bactrians, and from the 5th to the 8th century the Sogdians. During the coming of age of Islam, Arab traders became prominent. By the time of Herodotus (c. 475 BC), the Royal Road of the Persian Empire ran some 2,857 km (1,775 mi) from the city of Susa on the Karun (250 km (155 mi) east of the Tigris) to the port of Smyrna (modern İzmir in Turkey) on the Aegean Sea.It was maintained and protected by the Achaemenid Empire (c. 500–330 BC) and had postal stations and relays at regular intervals. By having fresh horses and riders ready at each relay, royal couriers could carry messages the entire distance[vague] in nine days, while normal travelers took about three months. The Royal Road linked into many other routes. Some of these, such as the routes to India and Central Asia, were also protected by the Achaemenids, which facilitated regular contact between India, Mesopotamia, and the Mediterranean.


Bronze Bull and Human figures from Luristan for the same period

Another example of the Persian love of symmetry is evident from these two human figures on two horses from the same location at the same period


A bronze bull with a human face from Luristan Province from the same period 


A bronze plate from Alishtar in Luristan Province from the same period


Another bronze plate with some fairly intricate flower and animal figures from the same place and time


Another bronze plate from the same place and time. It has floral motifs and human figures


A bronze rhython from the same place and time. A rhyton is a container from which fluids were intended to be drunk or to be poured in some ceremony such as libation. The conical rhyton form has been known in the Aegean region since the Bronze Age, or the 2nd millennium BCE. However, it was by no means confined to that region. Similar in form to, and perhaps originating from, the drinking horn, it has been widespread over Eurasia since prehistoric times.

Various braclets from the same place and time which look remarkably similar to those one finds in ancient China either made with jade or other precious metals in more or less the same period


Bronze necklaces from the same place and time


Various  bronze hair pins from the same place and time

Another bronze decorative piece showing a man being with huge horns from the same location and period


 Bronze disc and animal head pins from the same place and time


Various bronze rings, necklaces, bracelets and ear-rings from the same place and period 



Bronze decorative disc from the same place and period  showing floral designs

Another one showing both animal and floral design


a third one showing a man with the face of a lion and with serpents in his hands


Details from one of the head pins showing two human figures around a tree?

A bronze ram head from Hasanlu in West Azarbaijan from the same period

(To be cont'd)